Ben Jealous: Sanders-style Democrat gains traction in Clinton-loving Md.


Gubernatorial candidate Ben Jealous, right, takes the stage at the Debt Free College Rally with Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.), left, at the Oakcrest Community Center in Capitol Heights, Md., in May. (Michael Robinson Chavez/The Washington Post)

First in a series of profiles of Maryland’s Democratic gubernatorial primary candidates.

The sparse crowd chanted, “Bernie! Bernie!” as former NAACP president Ben Jealous and U.S. Sen. Bernie Sanders arrived on the makeshift stage.

“We’re going to change that to ‘Ben! Ben!’ ” said Sanders (I-Vt.), who was appearing for the third time to support Jealous’s run for Maryland governor. “While we have a president who wants to win votes by dividing us up . . . this is going to be a governor who brings us together.”

Jealous, the child of an interracial couple who left Maryland for California because they couldn’t be married in their home state, is seeking support from two distinct groups: white liberals who backed Sanders in the 2016 presidential race and African American voters who largely stayed home in 2014 because they were less than inspired by Anthony G. Brown, that year’s Democratic gubernatorial nominee.

With nearly 4 in 10 voters still undecided three weeks before the June 26 Democratic primary, the first-time candidate is one of two contenders leading a crowded field: Twenty-one percent of likely voters say they support him while 16 percent support Prince George’s County Executive Rushern L. Baker III, according to a Washington Post-University of Maryland poll.

Stacey Abrams, a longtime friend who is the Democratic gubernatorial nominee in Georgia, said Jealous “knows that every vote matters and that you have to contact every voter. But you have to particularly pay attention to the communities that are typically ignored by campaigns.”

Jealous wants Maryland to require a $15 minimum wage and become the first state in the country to adopt its own single-payer health-care system. As governor, he says, he would aim to reduce the prison population by 30 percent, raise the cigarette tax and increase income taxes by 1 percent on the top 1 percent of earners to help pay for several programs that would allow students to go to public colleges and universities free.

He also wants to legalize adult recreational use of marijuana to help pay for universal prekindergarten.

“Folks will tell you that the things I want to do are big and hard, and they are right. But nothing worth doing is ever easy,” Jealous said in an interview. “I’ve spent my whole life getting the big done, making the hard possible.”

Some analysts say Jealous, 45, is too far to the left to beat popular Republican Gov. Larry Hogan, noting that while Maryland has a 2-to-1 Democratic voter advantage, Sanders lost to Hillary Clinton in the 2016 Democratic primary by a similar margin.

“There are a lot of moderate and conservative Democrats in the state,” said Todd Eberly, a political-science professor at St. Mary’s College. “I think they are going to be concerned about single-payer health care, teachers getting a 29 percent pay increase, full-day universal pre-K.”

But he is catching on with some voters. Karen Randall, a teacher from Howard County, said she was sold on Jealous after her son, Jordan, went to a rally for the candidate and came home excited.

“When you have a 23-year-old male child who says, ‘I really want you to hear this guy,’ you know it sparked something inside of him,” said Randall, who later attended an event for Jealous hosted by the state teachers’ union. “After last year’s election, things need to change.”

Jealous has won multiple endorsements from progressive groups such as Working Families and Our Revolution; unions, including the Service Employees International Union and the Maryland State Education Association; and leading liberal Democrats such as U.S. Sens. Cory Booker (N.J.) and Kamala D. Harris (Calif.).

He calls it a “rainbow coalition of relationships.”

His “godbrother,” comedian Dave Chappelle, is heading to Maryland to campaign for him this weekend.

Jealous was 35 when he took the helm of the NAACP in 2008, the youngest-ever president and chief executive officer of the country’s oldest civil rights organization.

He left the job in 2013, midway through an extended three-year contract, to focus on lowering his blood pressure and spending more time with his wife, Lia Epperson, and two young children. The couple divorced in 2015.

On the campaign trail, Jealous touts his work at the NAACP to help Maryland legalize same-sex marriage, abolish the death penalty and implement the Dream Act, which allows some undocumented immigrant students access to in-state college tuition.

His descriptions have prompted criticism from primary opponents, namely state Sen. Richard S. Madaleno Jr. (Montgomery), who helped lead efforts in Annapolis to extend immigrant and gay rights and says Jealous is inappropriately taking credit.

“Jealous never showed up at any of the strategy sessions held with key legislators that I attended,” Madaleno supporter David Lublin, a former co-president of Equality Maryland, wrote in Seventh State, a Maryland political blog.

At the time, Jealous’s push for the NAACP to pass a resolution supporting same-sex marriage was controversial, leading to a backlash from some more socially conservative members of the board.

Still, the Rev. Wendell Anthony, president of the Detroit branch of the NAACP, said Jealous helped bring stability to the beleaguered organization by raising its profile and boosting membership and fundraising. He said Jealous largely focused his efforts at the state level, working with local chapters on a broad agenda that included civil rights, social justice and economic reform.

“His sensitivity is to the needs of people, not just those at the top but those at the grass roots,” Anthony said.

His biggest NAACP misstep came in 2010, when Jealous wrongly condemned U.S. Department of Agriculture official Shirley Sherrod for making allegedly racist comments. He apologized after learning that the comments were taken out of context by a conservative blogger, and Sherrod has endorsed his gubernatorial campaign.


Gubernatorial candidate Ben Jealous during a campaigning stop at the Delta Sigma National Night Out Block Party last summer in Baltimore. (Salwan Georges/The Washington Post)

Jealous speaks at the National Cannabis Policy Summit in the District in April. (Steve Thompson/The Washington Post)

Jealous, who grew up in California, spent summers with his grandparents in West Baltimore. He got his start in politics at age 14, working on Jesse Jackson’s presidential campaign.

While studying at Columbia University, he led protests, including one to block efforts to tear down the Audubon Ballroom, where Malcolm X was assassinated. That demonstration resulted in a suspension from the Ivy League university.

Jealous went on to become a Rhodes scholar. Since leaving the NAACP, he has worked as a tech investor with the Kapor Center for Social Impact.

Throughout his childhood and adulthood, Jealous has struggled with a stutter, which was especially noticeable during a recent televised debate. In a Facebook message last year, he said, “When I was young, it was actually a source of great stress.”

He worked on controlling the stammer back then by practicing debating, he said in the post. The idea was suggested by one of Baltimore’s first black judges, Robert B. Watts, who was also a friend of his grandfather.

Jealous said he thinks Maryland is ready for a different approach than those offered by more-traditional politicians. “I come with the optimism of an organizer who knows we can do big things in Maryland when we’re willing to come together,” he said.

Next: Rushern L. Baker III.

Gay Black Artist Jonathan Lyndon Chase Makes His Mark in the L.A. Art World

Jonathan Lyndon Chase does not paint self-portraits. But in every stroke and atom of his prismatic, distressed and lyrically visceral mixed-media portraits, the artist embodies his own sense of self, both literally and figuratively constructing complex aspects of personal identity right before your eyes.

The 28-year-old, Philadelphia-based artist has just opened his first major solo exhibition in Los Angeles, home to his new powerhouse gallery representation, Hollywood’s Kohn Gallery. It’s a huge moment in Chase’s career, and the affecting, engaging and original work on display in the show, “Sheets,” lives up to the moment.

As a gay black man, aware at all times of existing as a “minority within a minority,” Chase has developed a unique aesthetic style characterized by an eclectic assortment of materials and mediums, a wide array of techniques, and influences ranging from Romare Bearden to Francis Bacon, Alison Saar to Kerry James Marshall.

Gay Black Artist Jonathan Lyndon Chase Makes His Mark in the L.A. Art World

Johnny Lyndon Chase/Courtesy Kohn Gallery

Chase’s depictions of individuals and pairs of figures, very often attractive gay men of color, are rendered using painting, drawing, collage, digital media, watercolor, pastel, oil stick, glitter, marker, charcoal, pen and pencil. The way he contours a face or a body can range from the richly textured to the translucent and ethereal, even within the same composition.

More than intense chromatic and narrative visual poetry, more than lovely images of lovely men, the way Chase practices his art embodies an analogous psychic process — that of forging one’s own public and private persona in the continuum of a non-binary existence such as his own. Seeing race and gender as performed social constructs, in Chase’s art he intuitively selects a variety of elements from which to build his art as he has built himself.

Gay Black Artist Jonathan Lyndon Chase Makes His Mark in the L.A. Art World

Johnny Lyndon Chase/Courtesy Kohn Gallery

The volatile visual and material juxtapositions represent a related psychosocial dynamic of duality — between inner and outer lives, private and public spaces, history and experience. Viewing the body as an archive of memories in much the same way as the canvas is a compendium of mark-making, Chase offers a visual expression of the invisible operations of his heart and mind, making the world as he makes his way through it.

Kohn Gallery, 1227 N. Highland Ave., Hollywood; (323) 461-3311, kohngallery.com. Tue.-Fri., 10 a.m.-6 p.m.; Sat., 11 a.m.-6 p.m.

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Some history of African American churches

On Sunday, June 10, at 2:30 p.m., the Salem Baptist Church of Shongaloo will celebrate the milestone of its 163rd anniversary. Somehow, Salem was omitted from a survey done about 10 years ago for the Dorcheat Museum, so my information about the congregation is meager. But the church still meets on the 2nd Sunday of each month, and its founding date of 1855 makes it among the oldest African-American congregations in Webster Parish, if not the oldest. The founders of the congregation were women, Sisters Savilla Manning and Margaret Lewis. Many thanks to a writer with local ties, Renee La Viness for alerting me to the celebration and Mary Markray, Church Secretary, for providing me information on the church’s history. The membership invites all to celebrate this occasion with them next Sunday. Today’s Echo will briefly examine the emergence of the African-American churches in Webster Parish.

In antebellum Northwest Louisiana, almost all African Americans were being held in slavery. During the early years of old Claiborne Parish, founded in 1828, there were a few free persons of color, but by 1860, that number had dwindled to one. He was Joe Populous, a barber at the Minden Hotel. By 1861, Populous has relocated to New Orleans where he became an early enlistee in the famed Louisiana Native Guards. Dealing with religion among the slaves was a problem for the Protestant churches in our region. Their faith commanded them to share the word of Christ, but Slave Codes forbade the assembly of slaves together in groups without white supervision. Their only alternative seemed to be to allow the slaves to attend the white congregations.

The presence of slave members in area white churches was apparent. Still today, at the 1850s building of the Rehobeth Church at Mt. Lebanon you can see the balcony where slaves sat during the years before emancipation. When the Minden Baptist Church (today’s First Baptist Church of Minden) was founded in December 1844, it soon began to number slaves among its congregants. Among the earliest members of the Minden Baptist Church was Nancy, listed as a servant of Sister Allen, who was received as a member in June 1845. In 1850, Minden Baptist granted the privilege of preaching to the slave members of the church to Brother George, who was also a slave member of the congregation. By 1865, the Minden Baptist Church had 35 slave members. With the end of the Civil War and the enforcement of emancipation, the situation gradually changed and by January 1867, all African-American members had been lettered out or dismissed from the church roll. Church minutes from that month reflect the final letters of dismissal. There are differing accounts of precisely how this took place, but the following account from the Minutes of the Red River Association in 1866 is contemporary to the developments (although it is clearly shaded by the prevalent racial attitudes of the times):

“At Minden, separate services were begun for the blacks. The colored members were encouraged to withdraw and form an organization of their own. They were aided in purchasing a lot and erecting a house of worship. The pastor, W. E. Paxton, preached to them regularly, instructed them in the management of their affairs, supplied them with about three hundred copies of the New Testament; encouraged them to employ a teacher and learn to read. They were organized into a church, about sixty taking letters for the purpose. The pastor continued to preach to them regularly. He organized them into a Sunday School, and supplied them with the necessary books. A few could read, and these were selected as teachers. A discreet, pious and intelligent colored man, named William Newman, who had long been a deacon in the service of the colored members at Mt. Lebanon, was set apart to the Gospel ministry, and was chosen as pastor.”

Although this account varies in some ways from the records of St. Rest Baptist Church, it is clear St. Rest was the congregation being described.

Much of the following history of congregations comes from an excellent compilation of the African-American history of Webster Parish put together by Dr. Roy Phillips and the late James Smith for the Dorcheat Museum in 2009. This article will on skim the surface of their research as the document on churches alone runs more than 20 pages and has many images. So, for members of the congregations discussed, do not think the abbreviated descriptions I am forced to use by reasons of space are all that is included about your church. I do want to use a part of the introduction put together by Phillips and Smith.
In discussing the role religion played in the lives of the slaves, who had been dislodged from their lives and taken halfway across the world, Phillips and Smith wrote this:

“The white slave masters introduced them to the European model of Christianity as found within the Baptist and Methodist church traditions. They were allowed to attend white churches in a segregated section of their churches.

After emancipation, they were not welcomed in the majority of white churches, especially those of the protestant tradition. It should be noted, however, that some white slave masters assisted them in the establishment of their own churches through the donation of land and building materials. In some cases, some white ministers co-pastored with African American pastors and taught them how to read the Bible.

It should be noted that the African American church was the first organized institution outside of the home within the African American community. There, they were able to associate freely with one another and speak their mind without fear of retribution from the slave master.

African American ministers of the early churches were generally able to read and write. In the beginning, they quoted Bible scripture taken from the Old Almanac until the Bible became available in their churches and homes. Because of their independence, the seeds of disobedience became deeply implanted in the African American church tradition, where many of its civil rights leaders originated.

The African American church also became the social gathering place for families within the community as well as the school house for the education of the children within the community.”

With the emergence of the CME and AME denominations, a structure was developed for Methodist congregations among the former slaves. Because of the strong congregational nature of Baptist Churches, those churches were at first formed as independent congregations.

With that said, lets briefly look at the African-American churches established in Webster Parish through 1870.
Wesley Grove Christian Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in 1863 at Cotton Valley, Louisiana. Its first pastor was John Hawkins. The church began in a crude log cabin with pine log seats and with an old wood heater in the middle of the church.

In October 1865, under the leadership of Reverend Cager Nelson (1865-1871), the Saint Rest Baptist Church was organized. Saint Rest was the first organized Baptist church for Negroes in the Minden area and is called the mother church of the Fourteenth District Baptist Association. With the organized church in tact but still under a brush arbor, the members began raising money to purchase land to build a permanent structure. On October 31, 1866, Brother Romulus Bell, representing the group, purchased three acres of land.

The church was moved from the brush arbor into a boxed house with no ceiling, side walls, or glass windows. An oversized boxed pulpit was constructed, and the seats were made of split logs with pegs for legs.

Rev. J. A. Moore, Sr., (1912-1918) was the tenth pastor. Reverend Moore led the church through many accomplishments before he resigned; many men and women became faithful working members, the large debt was finally paid in full, and the mortgage note was burned. During the five and one-half years, more than 175 members were added to the church.

In December 1952, Reverend B. F. Martin, Sr., became the seventeenth pastor. From the very beginning, Reverend Martin was dynamic, youthful, and energetic. He proved himself to be the person needed to guide the activities of the church.
Reverend B. F. Martin retired on February 2, 1999, the date of his 84th birthday.

A new era began for Saint Rest with the election of its eighteenth pastor, Reverend B J. Martin, Jr. B. J. Martin retired in 2017 and was replaced by the Rev. Robby D. Williams.

Saint James Baptist Church was organized in Webster Parish by Reverend Cage and his assistants, Mr. T. J. Jackson, Mr. Calvin James, and Mr. & Mrs. A. G. Gooding. The first pastor was Reverend Cager Nelson, mentioned above for his role at St. Rest. From 1866 to 1872, the church had two locations, Mayfield Farm and Stewart Farm. In 1888. St. James Baptist Church moved to its present site.

During the early 1900’s, the Saint James and Saint Matthew Community was organized under the supervision of the late Reverend J. A. Moore (mentioned earlier for his time at St. Rest and for whom a Minden elementary school would be named) for the purpose of building Rosenwald School (known as Concord School). The community raised money for the construction. After lots of fundraising, the school was finally completed in 1925 and opened in the fall of 1926 with Mr. J. N. Stone, Sr., serving as principal. (J. N. Stone was the father of attorney Jesse Stone, later President of Southern University.)
Over the years the following congregations were formed as branches of St. James:

Saint Matthew CME Church, Saint John Baptist Church, Growing Valley Baptist Church and New Zion Baptist Church.
In November of 1867, a group of devout Christian men and women came together in Sarepta and organized a church and named it Mount Zion Missionary Baptist Church. Reverend Long was the first pastor of the church, whose membership at the time was twenty-five or thirty people. This original church was located north of Sarepta. In the early history of the church, a misunderstanding of unknown origin occurred, and the church was reorganized. Reverend H. P. Patterson purchased ten acres of land for a large sum of $50.00 and chose the third Sunday of the month as Pastoral Day. The land purchased by Reverend Patterson was two and one-half miles due east of Sarepta proper. On that spot, the church was reorganized, and the name changed from Mount Zion Missionary Baptist Church to Saint Peter Missionary Baptist Church, the name it holds to this day
In the mid-1800s, a son of a prominent family, the David James Mims family, who owned land on Flat Lick near what is now Evergreen Community, purchased land on Dorcheat Bayou, where he built a home for his family. He was one of the most successful farmers in the area between 1880 and 1910. Mims’ Webster Parish farm was cultivated by a number of African American families who lived on the land. On May 10, 1868, a few members, men and women who were members of the white Baptist Church, Shady Grove, called for letters of dismission for the purpose of organizing an African American Baptist church. The letters were granted. The Mims family gave the group five (5) acres of land on which to build a church, The Mount Comfort Baptist Church, which has remained in continuous use today.

The church was actually organized June 23, 1869. Shortly after the organization of the Mount Comfort Baptist Church, a few members of the Stanley family pulled out and started the Blue Run Church on Blue Run Road.

In 1870, the Mt. Zion CME church was organized. The first church building was constructed in 1876 on the present-day corner of Fort and Walnut Streets in Minden.

In 1870, a church was established on the north side of Flat Lake with the name Mount Obie Baptist Church. They decided to build another church. After a few years, the chartered members realized that most of the members who attended the church lived on the south side of Flat Lake, and it would be more convenient for the members if the church was relocated to the other side.

In 1875, five years later, the church was relocated on the south side of Flat Lake, at its present location. There is some controversy about how the church got it name, Blue Run Baptist Church. This story was told by Deacon Cicero Clark. He stated that the young men on the south side of Flat Lake were trying to court the young ladies on the north side of Flat Lake. The young ladies’ boyfriends saw them and started chasing them. The young men on the south side wore blue overalls. One of the young men in the bunch said, “run blue, run,” and that’s how the blue Run Baptist Church got its name.

Other African-American churches founded during the years of Reconstruction included the St. Matthews CME Church (1872), St. Mark Baptist Church (1873), Mount Nebo Baptist Church (1874) and Mount Olive Baptist Church (1877).

As one can see, the emergence of African-American congregations was an interesting and significant development in the life of our communities. It is a vital Echo of our Past.

Minden Historian John Agan’s column appears Tuesdays in the Minden Press-Herald.

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An explosive U.N. report shows America’s safety net was failing before Trump’s election


A United Nations official is criticizing President Trump’s policies on poverty. (J. Scott Applewhite/AP)

A new United Nations report is getting plenty of national media attention for predicting President Trump will exacerbate hardships for America’s poor by weakening the nation’s safety net.

“The policies pursued over the past year seem deliberately designed to remove basic protections from the poorest, punish those who are not in employment and make even basic health care into a privilege to be earned rather than a right of citizenship,” says the report, which will be presented to the Human Rights Council of the U.N. General Assembly.

The U.N.’s attack on the White House has generated a flurry of articles, with several seizing on the claim that America will grow more destitute under Trump.

But while many experts do think Trump is making life harder for the poor, America’s poverty rate has likely gone down — not up — since he took office because the economy as a whole continues to improve, according to poverty experts.

What is really striking about the report is how dire conditions were for America’s poor even before Trump took office.

Among countries in the developed world, the report says, America already has the highest rates of youth poverty, infant mortality, incarceration, income inequality and obesity.

Americans “live shorter and sicker lives compared to those living in all other rich democracies,” the report says.

About 40 million Americans live in poverty, and 18.5 million live in “extreme poverty.” More than 5 million Americans live “in Third World conditions of absolute poverty.”

About 11 million Americans cycle through a jail or prison every year, with at least 730,000 people incarcerated “on any given day,” the report says.

In 2016, a “shockingly high” number of children were living in poverty — about 13.3 million, or 18 percent of them — the U.N. report states, with government spending on children near the bottom of the international pack.

These statistics largely “could not reflect the policies of the Trump administration,” since the best existing poverty data predates his inauguration, said the author of the report, Philip Alston, U.N. special rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights, in an interview.

In his report, Alston blames the American political system for these failings, arguing it deprives African Americans of voting rights, unfairly sends the homeless to jail, and has failed to provided health care and housing programs for its citizens.

“The persistence of extreme poverty is a political choice made by those in power,” Alston writes. “With political will, it could readily be eliminated.”

Poverty experts say a range of policies enacted by Trump will make poverty both more painful and more prevalent than would have otherwise been the case but say those effects are unlikely to show up in higher overall poverty rates until after the next recession hits.

“We just don’t have data to really tell us what’s going on yet during the Trump administration, and my guess is if it did it would show poverty falling again because of the economy,” said H. Luke Shaefer, director of Poverty Solutions at the University of Michigan. “But we have no reason to think the president is improving the situation, and a lot of reasons to think he’ll exacerbate them.”

The poverty rate has likely continued to fall during Trump’s first and second years in office in part because wage growth has increased, unemployment has fallen, and most people in poverty are in the labor market.

The U.S. poverty rate reached 12.7 percent in 2016, before Trump was elected, down from 15.1 percent in 2010. That came as the unemployment rate fell from a high of 10 percent to 4.7 percent at the end of 2016. Today the unemployment rate is 3.8 percent.

Trump’s biggest proposed changes to the safety net — the repeal of the Affordable Care Act passed under President Barack Obama and deep cuts to social programs called for in his federal budget — have failed to pass Congress and are not expected to pass soon.

Trump has successfully pushed through a range of other policies expected to affect the poor. These include granting states the ability to impose work requirements on Medicaid, stripping or undermining key provisions in the Affordable Care Act, pushing tougher sentencing guidelines for criminal prosecutors, ending overtime rules protecting workers and revoking legal status for groups of immigrants. Other experts say the poor are also more likely to bear the brunt of global climate change, and Trump has ended several Obama-era initiatives aimed at curbing carbon emissions.

Conservatives have defended the White House, saying introducing new work requirements will lift Americans out of poverty by encouraging them to work.

“I applaud this action by President Trump to help reduce poverty in our country through promoting opportunity and economic mobility,” Rep. Kevin Brady (R-Tex.), chair of the House Ways and Means Committee, said in a statement after Trump announced plans to ask executive agencies to impose work requirements.

But others, including the U.N.’s Alston, predict the president’s policies will weaken a safety net that already made America among the stingiest in the world for its treatment of the poor.

“It stands to be seen what kind of effect Trump’s policies will have on the poverty rate, the child poverty rate, the incarceration rate, wealth inequality, or a bunch of other factors,” said Jamila Michener, a poverty scholar at Cornell University. “But my expectation is most if not all these outcomes will look worse post-Trump than they did pre-Trump.”

Latest results from midterm primaries in 8 states

The Latest: Judge recalled for Stanford sex assault sentenceThe Latest: Judge recalled for Stanford sex assault sentence

FILE – In this May 15, 2018 file photo, Judge Aaron Persky poses for a photo with a sign opposing his recall in Los Altos Hills, Calif. Northern California voters are deciding on Tuesday, June 5 whether to remove Persky from office for the first time in decades because he sentenced a former Stanford University swimmer convicted of sexual assault to a short jail sentence instead of prison. Persky would be the first California judge recalled from office since 1932 if a majority of voters choose to remove him on Tuesday. (AP Photo/Jeff Chiu, File)

WASHINGTON (AP) — The Latest on primaries being held Tuesday in Alabama, California, Iowa, Mississippi, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico and South Dakota (all times local):

2:40 a.m.

Northern California voters have recalled a judge from office after he sentenced a former Stanford University swimmer convicted of sexual assault to a short jail sentence instead of prison.

Santa Clara County Judge Aaron Persky was targeted for recall in June 2016 shortly after he sentenced Brock Turner to six months in jail for sexually assaulting a young woman outside a fraternity house on campus. Prosecutors argued for a 7-year prison sentence.

Critics say the sentence was too lenient.

The case gained national prominence after the victim read an eloquent statement in court before Turner’s sentence. The statement circulated widely online and was read on the floor of the U.S. Capitol during a congressional session.

The recall election was also viewed as one of the first electoral tests of the #MeToo movement’s political clout.

___

2 a.m.

Business community favorite London Breed is leading in the race for San Francisco mayor in a competitive contest that has not yet been called.

Breed’s two fiercest competitors and more liberal Democrats, Mark Leno and Jane Kim, were trailing in second and third place.

The 43-year-old Breed would make history as the city’s first African-American female mayor. The president of the Board of Supervisors was raised by her grandmother in San Francisco public housing, graduated from public schools and is touted as a local success story.

Breed had about 36 percent of the vote with 123,000 ballots counted Tuesday night.

Leno, a former state senator who would make history as the city’s first openly gay mayor, was in second place with 26 percent of the vote. Kim, a San Francisco supervisor and daughter of Korean immigrants, had 21.5 percent.

___

1:35 a.m.

Former state Democratic Party leader Debra Haaland has won the party’s nomination for a congressional seat in New Mexico as she tries to become the country’s first Native American congresswoman.

Democrats are looking to maintain control over the Albuquerque-based seat in November. Haaland, a member of Laguna Pueblo, finished ahead of a crowded field that included former career prosecutor Damon Martinez, former law professor Antoinette Sedillo Lopez, attorney Damian Lara and business consultant Paul Moya.

Haaland will face former Republican state lawmaker Janice Arnold-Jones and Libertarian candidate Lloyd Princeton in the general election.

During the campaign, some fellow Democrats accused Haaland of not doing enough to address claims of misconduct while leading the state party. Haaland argued that she adopted a statewide sexual harassment policy for the party during her tenure.

___

1:30 a.m.

Montana State Auditor Matthew Rosendale has won the Republican nomination for U.S. Senate in the race to challenge Democratic incumbent Jon Tester in November.

Rosendale defeated three other candidates in Tuesday’s GOP primary. The 57-year-old has support from deep-pocketed Republican donors who want to deny Tester a third term.

The campaign grew heated when former District Judge Russ Fagg said Rosendale would go easy on “illegal immigrants who commit murder.” Political committees backing Rosendale hit back with attacks on Fagg’s judicial record.

The race between Rosendale and Tester will be under a spotlight. President Donald Trump vowed to make Tester pay for sinking his nominee to lead the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

Trump’s remarks prompted a flood of outside money on ads blasting Tester and propping up Rosendale.

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1:25 a.m.

Republican John Cox has won the second spot for the November election in the race for California governor.

Cox’s second-place finish in Tuesday’s primary ensures Republicans won’t be shut out of the race. But the San Diego businessman faces long odds against Democrat Gavin Newsom in a state where Democrats are increasingly dominating.

Cox got a major boost from President Donald Trump’s endorsement, which helped solidify his support among Republicans and push him past Democrats Antonio Villaraigosa, John Chiang and Delaine Eastin.

Trump’s endorsement was a blow to Republican Assemblyman Travis Allen of Huntington Beach, who portrayed himself as the candidate most loyal to the president.

Democratic Gov. Jerry Brown is barred by term limit laws from seeking re-election.

___

12:15 a.m.

Democrat Gavin Newsom has secured the first of two slots in the November election to replace Jerry Brown as California’s governor.

The lieutenant governor and former San Francisco mayor defeated rivals from both parties in Tuesday’s primary.

It’s too early to say who will take the second slot and advance to the general election.

Newsom was the first candidate to announce a bid for governor more than three years ago. He leaned heavily on his decision in 2004 to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples in San Francisco, touching off years of debate over gay marriage in California and around the country. He says the move shows he’s willing to take bold steps on liberal priorities.

He’s been open about his desire to face a Republican in the November runoff.

___

12:05 a.m.

Democrat Gavin Newsom and Republican John Cox have taken an early lead in the race to replace Jerry Brown as California governor.

Newsom narrowly led Cox with about 30 percent of the vote in early returns from Tuesday’s primary, while Republican Travis Allen and Democrat Antonio Villaraigosa (vee-yah-ry-GOH’-sah) trailed.

Because of California’s so-called jungle primary, the top two vote-getters — regardless of party — advance to a runoff in November.

Newsom is California’s lieutenant governor and the former mayor of San Francisco. He was strongly favored to come in first in a race he began almost four years ago.

Cox is a businessman from the San Diego area who has never held elected office. President Donald Trump tweeted his support for him Tuesday.

___

Midnight

Early results show voters favoring the recall of a Northern California judge over a sexual assault sentence that garnered national attention.

Santa Clara County’s voter registrar reports the first returns Tuesday night show 59 percent of voters favoring removing Judge Aaron Persky from office, with 40 percent opposed.

Persky sentenced former Stanford University swimmer Brock Turner in June 2016 to six months in jail instead of prison after he was convicted of sexually assaulting a woman outside a fraternity house. The recall campaign launched shortly afterward.

The campaign gained national prominence after the victim’s powerful courtroom statement lamenting her treatment by the judicial system was circulated widely online.

___

11:35 p.m.

U.S. Rep. Kristi Noem has won the Republican primary for governor in her bid to become the first woman elected South Dakota governor.

Noem beat Attorney General Marty Jackley on Tuesday, becoming the first GOP woman to win the nomination. The campaign soured at the end as the candidates sought to break out.

Noem overcame criticisms that she turned the race negative and broke several congressional campaign promises. Noem — who was first elected to Congress in 2010 — touted her role negotiating Republicans’ recent federal tax cuts with President Donald Trump and her farming and ranching background.

Noem will face Democrat Billie Sutton, a state senator and former professional rodeo cowboy, in the general election. Sutton avoided a primary, allowing him to bank cash.

___

11:30 p.m.

Former Miss America Mallory Hagan of Opelika has won the Democratic nomination in an Alabama congressional race.

She defeated Adia Winfrey of Talladega and will face U.S. Rep. Mike Rogers in the fall.

Hagan was crowned Miss America in 2013 and until recently worked as a news anchor at WLTZ-TV in Columbus, Georgia. She says many people feel unheard after nearly four terms of Rogers holding the seat.

Winfrey is a psychologist who said she was inspired to run by the late Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. She was a volunteer in Sen. Doug Jones’ successful Democratic campaign last year.

Rogers is unopposed for the GOP nomination. He’s from Anniston.

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11:25 p.m.

U.S. Sen. Dianne Feinstein has won first place in the California primary, easily moving to the general election as she seeks a fifth full term.

Feinstein’s opponent hasn’t yet been determined.

California runs a primary system where the two highest vote-getters move on, regardless of party. That means Feinstein could face a fellow Democrat in November.

The 84-year-old Feinstein was first elected to the Senate in 1992 after serving as San Francisco mayor and running unsuccessfully for governor.

She is the top Democrat on the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee.

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11:15 p.m.

Twenty-eight-year-old state legislator Abby Finkenauer has won a Democratic congressional primary in Iowa and is fighting to be the youngest woman ever elected to the U.S. House.

Finkenauer won the nomination Tuesday over three other candidates by stressing her blue-collar roots and support for policies intended to support working families.

She now will face two-term Rep. Rod Blum, who ran unopposed in the GOP primary.

Finkenauer frequently notes she’s running for Congress while still paying off student loans.

Finkenauer is serving her second term in the Legislature. She has called for improving health care through the Affordable Care Act, supported more infrastructure spending and questioned federal tax cuts she argues primarily helped corporations and the wealthy.

Republican Elise Stefanik of New York became the youngest woman ever elected to Congress in 2014 at age 30.

___

11 p.m.

California polls have closed and results are trickling in in hundreds of contests across the state that could solidify Democratic dominance and reshape the fight for control of the U.S. Congress.

Traffic at polling stations was light Tuesday because many people voted in advance in races setting the stage for the November election.

Democratic Lt. Gov. Gavin Newsom is the front-runner in the race for governor. President Donald Trump tweeted support for Republican businessman John Cox in the governor’s race.

The secretary of state’s office said more than 2.5 million people had voted by mail as of Monday night.

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10:55 p.m.

Tuscaloosa Mayor Walt Maddox has won the Democratic primary in Alabama’s race for governor.

Maddox defeated former Alabama Chief Justice Sue Bell Cobb and other candidates in the Tuesday race.

Maddox has been the mayor of Tuscaloosa since 2005. His platform includes establishing a state lottery to fund a mixture of college scholarships, prekindergarten programs and financial assistance for the state’s poorest and struggling schools.

In seeking the Democratic nomination, Maddox obtained valuable endorsements from Birmingham Mayor Randall Woodfin and the Alabama Democratic Conference, which is the state’s largest African-American political organization.

Alabama hasn’t elected a Democrat to the governor’s office since 1998. Energized by the December victory of U.S. Sen. Doug Jones, the party is seeking a resurgence in state politics.

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10:50 p.m.

Alabama Gov. Kay Ivey has clinched the Republican nomination for governor without a runoff.

Ivey was declared the winner Tuesday night after beating back a field of GOP challengers. She is seeking to win the office in her own right after becoming governor 14 months ago when her scandal-battered predecessor, Robert Bentley, resigned.

Huntsville Mayor Tommy Battle, evangelist Scott Dawson and state Sen. Bill Hightower did not collectively pull enough votes to force Ivey into a runoff. She will face the Democratic nominee in November.

In her campaign, Ivey emphasized the state’s robust economy, falling unemployment rate and the quieting of the scandal that had engulfed the state’s previous governor.

Her challengers had condemned her refusal to debate and indirectly questioned whether the 73-year-old governor could complete a four-year term.

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10:45 p.m.

David Baria and Howard Sherman are headed to a June 26 runoff in Mississippi’s Democratic primary for U.S. Senate.

Six candidates ran in Tuesday’s primary.

The Senate seat has been held since 2007 by Republican Roger Wicker. Mississippi last had a Democrat in the Senate in 1989.

Baria, of Bay St. Louis, is an attorney and served one term in the state Senate before being elected in 2011 to the Republican-led Mississippi House, where he’s now the Democratic leader. He criticizes Republicans for cutting taxes and refusing to expand Medicaid.

Sherman is a venture capitalist and the husband of actress Sela Ward. They raised their two children in Los Angeles, where he grew up, and the couple now lives near her hometown of Meridian, Mississippi.

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10:40 p.m.

U.S. Rep. Martha Roby has been forced into a runoff in Alabama’s Republican primary after challengers blasted her 2016 criticism of Donald Trump.

Roby faces Bobby Bright in a July runoff in Alabama’s conservative 2nd district — where Trump loyalty has been a central issue.

Roby is a four-term incumbent. In campaigning for Tuesday’s primary, she emphasized her record and working relationship with the White House.

In 2016, Roby criticized Trump after a 2005 recording surfaced of him making lewd comments about women, saying the behavior made him an unacceptable candidate and suggesting he step away from the presidential ticket.

Bright is a former Montgomery mayor who represented the district for two years as a Democrat before losing in 2010 to Roby. He ran an ad with footage of Roby’s Trump comment.

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10:35 p.m.

Retired Des Moines businessman Fred Hubbell has won the Iowa Democratic primary and a chance to face Republican Gov. Kim Reynolds in November.

Hubbell hasn’t been elected to office but has held numerous business positions he says make him well-positioned to lead state government. Those jobs include executive roles at Younkers department stores, Equitable Life Insurance and the ING Group.

Hubbell’s victory in Tuesday’s primary over four other candidates followed a campaign in which he outspent all of his opponents. Much of Hubbell’s campaign was self-funded, with him contributing $2.1 million of his own money in 2018.

Hubbell says his priorities include improving wages, health care and education.

A sixth candidate on the ballot, state Sen. Nate Boulton, dropped out of the race after allegations of sexual misconduct.

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10:10 p.m.

U.S. Rep. Michelle Lujan Grisham has won the Democratic nomination for New Mexico governor and will take on Republican congressman Steve Pearce in November for the state’s top job.

The three-term congresswoman defeated state Sen. Joseph Cervantes and former media executive Jeff Apodaca in a campaign focused on improving the state’s lagging economy and public education.

Lujan Grisham leads the Congressional Hispanic Caucus and has been a vocal critic of President Donald Trump and his immigration policies.

She previously led state public health agencies under three former governors, including Democrat Bill Richardson. Her campaign received endorsements from an array of labor unions, progressive advocacy groups and several tribal governments.

State law prevents Republican Gov. Susana Martinez from seeking a consecutive third term.

___

10:05 p.m.

Polls have closed in Iowa and Montana on a night when eight states are holding primaries.

In Montana, races were called at closing time Tuesday for the unopposed incumbents, Democratic U.S. Sen. Jon Tester and Republican U.S. Rep. Greg Gianforte.

They and other candidates running unopposed advanced to the Nov. 6 general election.

In Iowa, election officials say there appeared to be record turnout Tuesday, fueled in part by a five-way race for the Democratic governor nomination. The winner will face incumbent Gov. Kim Reynolds, who wasn’t opposed for the Republican nomination.

There also were contested Democratic primaries for three of Iowa’s four U.S. House seats.

Republican Rep. Steve King was the only incumbent who was challenged in the primary.

___

9:25 p.m.

U.S. Sen. Bob Menendez has fended off a primary challenger and will be the Democratic nominee in New Jersey’s only statewide race this fall.

The 64-year-old on Tuesday defeated publisher Lisa McCormick in his push for a third term.

Menendez is heading into the general election after federal criminal corruption charges against him were dropped and he was rebuked by the Senate’s ethics panel.

Republican challenger Bob Hugin (HYOO’-gihn) has been pummeling Menendez over the allegations he accepted gifts in exchange for helping a friend with personal and business matters. A jury couldn’t reach a verdict on the charges last year, and federal prosecutors decided not to retry the case.

Menendez has denied he did anything wrong and has cast himself as a check against President Donald Trump in a year when the Senate could be up for grabs.

___

9:20 p.m.

Los Angeles County officials say the names of more than 118,000 voters were omitted from voter lists because of a printing error, but residents can still cast their ballots.

The county’s registrar-recorder’s office says registered voters can cast provisional ballots in Tuesday’s primary election.

They say the issue involves 118,522 voters in Los Angeles County.

They say poll workers have been instructed to offer provisional ballots to every voter whose name doesn’t appear on the poll site’s roster.

The county says votes cast on provisional ballots will be counted once the voter’s registration is confirmed.

Democratic U.S. Rep. Adam Schiff tweeted Tuesday: “Don’t let this affect the election results. Make sure your vote is counted!” Democrats need a good day in California to have much hope of seizing the House majority this fall.

___

9:10 p.m.

Polls are closing in New Mexico as voters decide on a Democratic candidate for governor and major-party nominees for two open congressional seats.

More than 92,000 votes were cast as the race narrows to succeed Republican Gov. Susana Martinez, who cannot run for a consecutive third term. In all, eight states are holding primaries Tuesday.

Democratic U.S. Rep. Michelle Lujan Grisham is competing against state Sen. Joseph Cervantes and former media executive Jeff Apodaca, the son of a former governor.

The winner will face the sole Republican candidate, U.S. Rep. Steve Pearce, in the November general election.

___

8:55 p.m.

A wealthy former biopharmaceutical executive and Marine has won New Jersey’s Republican Senate primary.

Bob Hugin defeated Brian Goldberg on Tuesday. Hugin ran Celgene until this year and is a first-time candidate spending millions of his own fortune to finance his race.

He says he’s running as an independent Republican in a state with roughly 900,000 more Democrats than Republicans.

Hugin barely concentrated on Goldberg, a former IT professional and construction firm executive.

Hugin’s entrance into the race buoyed Republicans, who have been on a downswing in statewide politics since Democratic Gov. Phil Murphy won last year.

Hugin has loaned his campaign at least $7.5 million and has pledged to restore dignity to the state.

That’s a ding at Democratic incumbent Bob Menendez, who defeated federal corruption charges after a hung jury last year.

___

8:50 p.m.

Republican U.S. Sen. Roger Wicker of Mississippi has won his party’s primary, months after being endorsed by President Donald Trump.

Mississippi is heavily Republican. It last had a Democrat in the Senate in 1989.

Wicker said in a recent fundraising appeal that he wants to help the president “enact his America-first policies.” In Tuesday’s primary, he defeated one opponent, Richard Boyanton. Boyanton ran a low-budget campaign.

Wicker served nearly 13 years in the U.S. House before he was appointed to the Senate when fellow Republican Trent Lott resigned in late 2007.

Six people were competing Tuesday in Mississippi’s Democratic primary for Senate. They include state lawmakers David Baria and Omeria Scott and venture capitalist Howard Sherman, who is married to TV and movie actress Sela Ward.

___

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2018 Alabama primary elections results

2018 Alabama primary elections results

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WEBVTT IAN: WE WILL CONTINUE OUR COMMITMENT 2018 COVERAGE. WE HAVE FORMER MAYOR WILLIAM BELL, AND FORMER STATE SENATOR, AND CURRENT CONSERVATIVE TALK SHOW HOST SCOTT BEASON WITH US. GOOD TO HAVE YOU WITH US. LET’S TALK ABOUT WHAT RACES HE WILL BE WATCHING CLOSELY AS POLLS CLOSE AT 7:00. >> THE GOVERNOR’S RACE IS THE BIG-TICKET, BOTH ON THE DEMOCRATIC AND REPUBLICAN SIDE. WE WILL SEE WHERE THE VOTERS WILL TURN OUT, ESPECIALLY IN JEFFERSON COUNTY. SCOTT: THE DRAW IN THIS RACE IS DEFINITELY THE GOVERNOR’S RACE. TURNOUT WILL MATTER THE MOST. I AM SURPRISED HOW LOW TURNOUT WAS ACROSS THE STATE. IT WAS LOW IN MY BOX. EVERYONE ELSE ACROSS THE STATE SAYS IT WAS LOW THERE. LOW TURNOUT MEANS IT IS INFORMATIVE VOTERS. MILLIONS OF DOLLARS ARE SPENT TO GET SOMEONE WHO MAY NOT KNOW YOUR NAME — IT MAY NOT WORK. WE MAY SEE RUNOFFS IN RACES WE ARE NOT EXPECTING BECAUSE OF THE TURNOUT. >> THAT MAY BE THE GREAT EQUALIZER. IAN: DO YOU THINK IT WILL BE BELOW WHAT THE AVERAGE MOTOR CURRENT IS EXPECTED? — AVERAGE VOTER TURNOUT IS EXPECTED? >> A LOT OF TIMES AROUND THE 5:00, 6:00 HOUR, YOU GET A LARGE INFLUX OF PEOPLE. WE WILL SEE WHAT HAPPENS. SCOTT: I THINK IT IS LOWER THAN ANTICIPATED. MAYBE IT IS THE NATIONAL NEWS EVERY DAY, MAKING EVERYTHING SOUND LIK — >> IT MAY CAUS SOME CONFUSION AND LEAD TO LITTLE ORDER TURNOUT — LOW VOTER TURNOUT. AS OPPOSED TO VOTING FOR FIVE OR SIX CANDIDATES IN A PARTICULAR RACE. >> I THINK TURNOUT WILL BE LOW. I AM SURPRISED HOW LITTLE EXCITEMENT THERE IS ABOUT THE RACES. THERE IS NOT A LOT OF PASSION. MANY TIMES THERE IS SOMEONE TO RUN AGAINST. I DON’T SEE THIS ON THE REPUBLICAN OR DEMOCRATIC SIDE. >> EVERYONE IS BEING TOO NICE. >> WE NEED SOME FIRE.

2018 Alabama primary elections results

After the polls close at 7 p.m., live results of Alabama’s primary elections can be seen below. App users, tap here.

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16 East Tennessee summer festivals to check out

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Scenes from Oak Ridge’s Secret City Festival Wayne Bledsoe

Spring might kick off festival season in East Tennessee, but summertime is no slouch when it comes to events.

The months of June-August are busy in this area and feature several festivals focused on food, fun, flowers, beer, different cultures and other subjects.

Things to do: What’s going on in East Tennessee in June?

Summer 2018: 100 things to do in Knoxville and surrounding areas

Here’s what to know before you go.

Secret City Festival: June 8-9

Oak Ridge’s annual Secret City Festival will unite festival favorites like music and food with exhibits focusing on technology and the history of the town.

The event will go from 11 a.m.-10 p.m. June 8 and 9 at Oak Ridge’s A.K. Bissell Park and feature food, vendors, live entertainment, a robotics competition, a World War II artifacts exhibition and other activities.

The festival is free except for its headlining concerts, which will feature Dennis DeYoung and the Music of Styx at 7 p.m. June 8 and the Little River Band at 7 p.m. June 9. Tickets cost $22 for one show and $40 for both shows.

Info and tickets: secretcityfestival.com

Dollywood Summer Festivals: June-August

Summertime is a popular time at Dollywood, and the park features two festivals during the season.

More: Dolly Parton unveils new Dollywood venue, entertainment for 2018 season

ItsBarbeque and Bluegrass festival kicked off in late May and will continue through June 10 with bluegrass concerts throughout the park and barbecue food specials. 

Dollywood’s 2018 “Season of Showstoppers” features a new summer festival, Summer Celebration, from June 16 to Aug. 5. The park will have late night fireworks and new entertainment from DRUMline Live!, iLuminate and Paint Jam during the festival.

Info: dollywood.com/themepark/Festivals

More: Dolly Parton breaks down what’s new for Dollywood’s 2018 season

Big Kahuna Wing Festival: June 16

Get your hot wing fix this June with Knoxville’s Big Kahuna Wing Festival. 

The event will take place from noon-8 p.m. June 16 at World’s Fair Park and feature wing eating and cooking competitions, live music, a silent auction, kids activities and more than 16,000 pounds of wings.

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Tickets are $20 in advance and $25 at the gate. VIP tickets cost $200. Children under 8 get in free.

Regular tickets will get you admission and 25 wings. Additional wings after your first 25 will cost $1. VIP tickets will include admission, early entry, access to a private VIP area with food, drinks and bathrooms, and unlimited wings and alcohol.

Info and tickets: bkwfestival.com

BrewFest: June 16

While the Big Kahuna Wing Festival takes off early in the day, Knoxville’s BrewFest will get started in the late afternoon on June 16.

It will go from 4-8 p.m. in World’s Fair Park at the base of the Sunsphere and Tennessee Amphitheater, according to the event’s website. The festival will feature more than 300 beer selections from Tennessee and beyond, as well as food vendors. 

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General admission tickets cost $50 and include a tasting glass and unlimited beer samples. Designated driver tickets cost $20 and will include non-alcoholic drinks. Attendees must be 21 years or older. Children and pets are not allowed.

Info and tickets: knoxvillebrewfest.com

More: DockDogs best in show at Knoxville’s Bike Boat Brew & Bark

Lavender Festival: June 16

Celebrate the environment, herbs and health at Oak Ridge’s 20th annual Lavender Festival. 

The event will take place from 8 a.m.-3 p.m. June 16 at Oak Ridge’s Historic Jackson Square. It will include vendors, music, entertainment, cooking demonstrations, a farmers market, a wine tasting and children’s activities.

The wine tasting will go from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. It costs $10 and includes a complementary glass.

Info: jacksonsquarelavenderfestival.org

Kuumba Festival: June 22

Knoxville’s Kuumba Festival will return June 22 to celebrate African-American arts and culture with the theme “Kuumba Forever.”

The event will go from noon-10 p.m. on Market Square and stage and will present more than 200 entertainers, demonstrations, craft and food vendors, and a parade and live concert. Performances will feature African dance and music and stilt walkers.

Info: sites.google.com/site/kuumbafestival

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Hops in the Hills: June 22-23

Maryville’s Hops in the Hills festival will celebrate the town’s beer scene with a week filled with events. 

It will kick off June 18-21 with events at individual Maryville breweries and then culminate with a Brew Crawl and Poker Run June 22 and Brew Festival June 23.

The Brew Crawl, presented by Knox Brew Tours, will go from 6-10 p.m. June 22. Buses will pick up attendees at The Public House on High in Maryville and will run throughout the night. Tickets cost $15. Attendees must be 21 or older.

The Brew Festival will take place from 5-9 p.m. June 23 in downtown Maryville with craft beer and food samples. Tickets cost $55 per person in advance and $65 on the day of. Designated driver tickets cost $25. Attendees must be 21 and over.

Hops in the Hills is one facet of Maryville’s Summer on Broadway event on June 22-23. Summer on Broadway will also feature Smoky Mountain Dock Dogs events, a parade, an auto show, vendors, a farmers market, music and other activities. 

Info and tickets: hopsinthehills.com

Daylily Bloom Festival: June 22-23

Six acres. More than 1,000 varieties of daylillies.

Expect to see that and more at the Oakes Daylily Bloom Festival from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. June 22-23 at 8153 Monday Road, Corryton.

During the free festival, attendees can walk around the display beds, listen to music from local artists, eat free refreshments or purchase lunch, shop at a plant sale, enjoy activities for kids and participate in a wine tasting.

The wine tasting costs $10 and includes a complementary glass. Every attendee will receive a free daylily for attending the event.

Info: oakesdaylilies.com/daylily-bloom-festival

Knox Pridefest: June 23

Knox Pridefest 2018 will feature events, music and speakers focused on promoting equality and inclusion for LGBTQ citizens of Knoxville and surrounding areas.

The free event will go from noon to 9 p.m. June 23 on the Mary Costa Lawn next to the Knoxville Civic Coliseum. A parade will precede the festival at 11 a.m. 

Info: knoxvillecoliseum.com/event/knox-pridefest-2018

Blount County Crabfest: June 23

Eat plenty of crab and help Second Harvest Food Bank at the same time at Blount County’s second annual Crabfest.

The event will take place from 2-5 p.m. June 23 at the food bank, 136 Harvest Lane, Maryville.

Tickets cost $50 and include all-you-can-eat steamed Southeast blue crabs, fried fish, french fries and boiled corn. Water, soda, wine and beer will also be available.

“Each ticket will provide 75 meals to those in need in the 18 counties Second Harvest serves,” according to a press release.

Info and tickets: community.secondharvestetn.org/pages/event-registration-crab-fest-2018

Festival on the 4th: July 4

Celebrate July 4 with entertainment, activities, music, food and fireworks at downtown Knoxville’s Festival on the 4th.

The free event is rain or shine and will go from 4-10 p.m. at World’s Fair Park. New this year, Festival on the 4th will feature the Home Federal Bank Family Fun Stage with live and interactive entertainment from 4-7:45 p.m. in the Amphitheater.

The Knoxville Symphony Orchestra will provide a musical finale at 8 p.m. on the performance lawn. Fireworks will begin at 9:42 p.m.

Info: knoxvilletn.gov/government/city_departments_offices/special_events/festival_on_the_4th.

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Pigeon Forge’s July Fourth Patriot Festival: July 4

Pigeon Forge will present its annual July 4th Patriot Festival to celebrate Independence Day.

The free event will kick off at noon at Pigeon Forge’s Patriot Park, 186 Old Mill Ave., and feature food, a kids carnival, a veterans tribute and live music.

Country singer and Army veteran Craig Morgan will headline the event at 8:30 p.m., and fireworks will start at 9:45 p.m.

Info: mypigeonforge.com/event/patriot-festival

Red, White & Blues Jam at West End: July 7

The Town of Farragut and Shop Farragut will team up to present the second annual Red White & Blues Jam.

Six bands will perform at the free event from 3-10 p.m. July 7 at the West End Shopping Center. The event will feature a large tent where attendees can take in the music, tents from Farragut businesses, and food and drink vendors.

Here’s the event’s lineup.

  • 3 p.m. Terraplane Drifters
  • 4 p.m. Doug and Mike
  • 5 p.m. Luke Pennington Trio
  • 6:15 p.m. Smokin’ Section
  • 7:30 p.m. Mighty Blue
  • 8:45 p.m. Mystic Rhythm Tribe
  • 9:30 p.m. Jam

Info: farragutbusiness.com/red-white–blues—jam.html

Great Smoky Mountain Hot Air Balloon Festival: Aug. 18

The Great Smoky Mountain Hot Air Balloon Festival will return for the second year this August. 

The event will go from 3-8 p.m. Aug. 18 at the Townsend Visitor’s Center. In addition to tethered hot air balloon rides, the festival will present kid-friendly activities, food trucks, arts and craft vendors, a wine tasting and a balloon glow.

Festival admission is free, and tickets for the wine tasting will cost $10 on the day of the event. Parking passes for the event cost $20 in advance and $25 on the day of.

Info: gsmballoonfest.com

Tennessee Smokies BeerFest: Aug. 25

A new beer festival will come to Smokies Stadium in August.

The Tennessee Smokies BeerFest will take place from 4-8 p.m. Aug. 25 at the stadium. It will have beer tastings, awards, live music and food.

Advance tickets cost $45; day-of tickets are $50, and VIP tickets cost $75. Designated driver tickets are $10. Regular tickets include admission, a tasting glass, unlimited pours and an undated ticket voucher for the Smokies that can be used for the last five games of the Smokies’ 2018 season. VIP tickets have everything the regular tickets include along with early entry at 3 p.m. and access to a private area during the event with a buffet. Designated driver tickets only include admission to the event.

Info: smokiesbaseball.com/beerfest

Knox Asian Festival: Aug. 26

The fifth Knox Asian Fest will bring Asian cultures and traditions to downtown Knoxville in August.

The free event will go from 11 a.m. to 6 p.m. Aug. 26 in Market Square and feature Asian food, vendors, fashion, crafts and performers.

Info: knoxasianfestival.com

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RankTribe™ Black Business Directory News – Arts & Entertainment

Texas Historical Markers hidden in plain sight in the Houston

Photo: Brett Coomer, Houston Chronicle

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HOUSTON HISTORY: Houston’s best historical markers 

A Texas State Historical Marker, honoring the Astrodome, is dedicated on Tuesday, May 29, 2018, in Houston.

See more of Houston’s historical markers…

HOUSTON HISTORY: Houston’s best historical markers 

A Texas State Historical Marker, honoring the Astrodome, is dedicated on Tuesday, May 29, 2018, in Houston.

See more of Houston’s historical markers…

Photo: Brett Coomer, Houston Chronicle

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Charlotte Marie Baldwin Allen

2525 Washington Avenue

MARKER TEXT: Considered by many as the “Mother of Houston,” Charlotte Marie Baldwin Allen was a leader in Houston during a time when women had few rights and fewer opportunities. She was born in Onondaga County, New York, and was the daughter of Elizabeth (Warner) and Dr. Jonas Cutler Baldwin. She married Augustus Chapman Allen in 1831. Charlotte arrived in Texas in 1834 when she joined her husband and his brother and business partner, John Kirby Allen, both of whom were already actively engaged in Texas land speculation. In August 1836, the Allen brothers purchased land on Buffalo Bayou and were soon advertising the establishment of a city called Houston. Although she left Texas in 1835 for health reasons, Charlotte returned in 1837 and assumed a prominent role in the development of Houston. After the death of her brother-in-law, John Kirby Allen, in 1838, Charlotte became an participating member in the extensive business dealings of the Allen and Baldwin families. She became involved in all aspects of business, from registering her own cattle brand in 1838 and directing the construction of a slaughterhouse to process the beef, to negotiating numerous real estate and development projects. After the civil war, Allen continued as an accomplished businesswomen, overseeing the sale of numerous properties. She donated various plots, including Old Market Square, to the city of Houston and to churches and civic organizations. When Charlotte Allen died, flags in Houston flew at half-staff in her honor. In 1907, Charlotte Baldwin Allen Elementary School beca

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Charlotte Marie Baldwin Allen

2525 Washington Avenue

MARKER TEXT: Considered by many as the “Mother of Houston,” Charlotte Marie Baldwin Allen was a leader in Houston during a time when women had few

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Photo: Joe Holley / Houston Chronicle

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4400 Bellaire Blvd. 

MARKER TEXT: Teas Nursery Company traces its history to 1843, when John C. Teas (1827-1907) began selling apples out of his back yard in Indiana. After moving the business to Missouri in 1868, Teas became a nationally prominent horticulturist. In 1908 his son, horticulturist Edward Teas, Sr. (1870-1951), met developer W. W. Baldwin who was then planning the community of Westmoreland Farms and the town of Bellaire in southwest Harris County. Baldwin hired Teas to execute the planting designs for Bellaire Boulevard and adjacent streets. Teas started work in Bellaire early in 1909. The next year, he moved his family from Missouri to this site and opened Teas Nursery Company. Initially specializing in the sale of fruit trees and flowering shrubs and plants, the business was later expanded to include landscaping services. The company’s early projects included the landscaping of Rice Institute (now Rice University) and the River Oaks subdivision. By 1951 Teas Nursery had planted over one million trees in the Houston area. Edward Teas died the same year, leaving ownership of the nursery to his descendants.

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4400 Bellaire Blvd. 

MARKER TEXT: Teas Nursery Company traces its history to 1843, when John C. Teas (1827-1907) began selling apples out of his back yard in Indiana. After moving the

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Photo: Melissa Phillip, Houston Chronicle

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3405 Dowling Street

MARKER TEXT: African American blues singer and guitarist Sam Hopkins was born in Centerville, Leon County, Texas in 1912, the youngest of five children of Abe and Frances (Washington) Hopkins. Sam learned to play guitar from John Henry and Joel Hopkins, two of his older brothers, and began his musical career in Central Texas under the guidance of Texas blues pioneers Alger “Texas” Alexander and Blind Lemon Jefferson. Hopkins traveled throughout the south for many years but ultimately settled in Houston in the mid-1940s. He became a mainstay of Houston’s Third Ward music clubs, especially those located on and around Dowling Street. Hopkins was “discovered” by an Aladdin Records talent scout in 1946 and was sent to Los Angeles for his first recording sessions. It was during these sessions that Hopkins picked up the nickname “Lightnin’” and recorded his first hit record, “Katy Mae.” After returning to Houston, Hopkins recorded for Gold Star, one of the earliest labels to record blues in Houston. Despite recording success, Hopkins continued to play and sing at Houston dance parties, street corners, and Dowling Street establishments. He also continued to record and tour, although he rarely played outside of Texas during the 1950s. The popularity of folk and blues music of the 1960s brought additional attention to Hopkins, and he performed to more integrated audiences, including several performances at New York’s Carnegie Hall. After a prolific career that included approximately 100 recorded albums, and over 600 songs, Hopkins died in 1982; he is buried in Houston’s Forest Park Lawndale Cemetery.

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3405 Dowling Street

MARKER TEXT: African American blues singer and guitarist Sam Hopkins was born in Centerville, Leon County, Texas in 1912, the youngest of five children of Abe and

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Photo: Eric Kayne, Freelance

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Jack Johnson 

Jack Johnson Park, 2601 Avenue M (Galveston)

MARKER TEXT: Galveston native Arthur John “Jack” Johnson (1878-1946) was the first African American world heavyweight boxing champion. He grew up in Galveston’s east end and honed his fighting skills working on the Wharves. During the 1900 storm, Johnson helped his family escape from their home on Broadway. In 1901, he refined his defensive skills with the help of Joe Choynski while in jail for illegal boxing. Johnson won the “Colored World Heavyweight Champion” title in 1903 but was determined to defeat white titleholder Tommy Burns. Though Burns initially refused the match, Johnson pursued him around the world until he finally agreed to fight in Australia in 1908. Johnson’s technical knockout in the 14th round led to a search for a “Great White Hope” to retake the title. He defended his title in the 1910 “Fight of the Century” with a knockout of former champion James Jeffries. His victory spawned both riots and celebrations. In 1912, the U.S. government indicted Johnson under the Mann Act in an attempt to tarnish him and discourage his interracial relationships. He fled the U.S. and lived in exile for eight years. In 1915, Johnson fought his last important match in Havana, Cuba. Although younger, fitter and taller, Jess Willard needed 26 rounds to knock out Johnson and take the heavyweight title. Johnson finally surrendered to federal authorities in 1920. While in prison, he obtained two patents. Johnson continued to fight but never again for a title. He spent his later years as an entertainer and exhibition fighter. A car crash on a North Carolina road ended his life at age 68. Johnson, “the Galveston Giant,” pursued his ambitions against rigid notions of racial hierarchy in 20th century America. His refusal to submit to the social standards of his ti

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Jack Johnson 

Jack Johnson Park, 2601 Avenue M (Galveston)

MARKER TEXT: Galveston native Arthur John “Jack” Johnson (1878-1946) was the first African American world heavyweight boxing champion. He grew up in

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Photo: Michael Paulsen, Staff

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813 Congress (Yes, right outside La Carafe) 

MARKER TEXT: Irish native John Kennedy (1819-78) came to Houston in 1842. A baker, he operated a store at other locations in the city before commissioning the construction of this building about 1860 for a steam bakery. Kennedy later established other operations and became a leading businessman of Houston. One of the oldest structures in the city on its original site, the two-story brick building remained in the Kennedy family until 1970. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark – 1980

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813 Congress (Yes, right outside La Carafe) 

MARKER TEXT: Irish native John Kennedy (1819-78) came to Houston in 1842. A baker, he operated a store at other locations in the city before

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Photo: Michael Paulsen, File

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4100 – 4110 Almeda

MARKER TEXT: From 1896 until the 1960s in the southern United States, Jim Crow Laws effectively banned African Americans from using public facilities and basic services that were used by whites. In March 1960, thirteen students from Texas Southern University (TSU) started a non-violent movement protesting these laws and changed Houston forever. These young architects of change formed the Progressive Youth Association (PYA), meeting at the South Central YMCA or in their apartments to plan strategies. These “War Room” meetings are where they organized Houston’s first sit-in. On March 4, 1960, the thirteen students met at a flagpole on TSU’s campus and marched in pairs one mile to Weingarten’s Supermarket (4110 Almeda Road) with the objective of being served at the lunch counter. Dozens more joined them as they marched, singing black spirituals. Though white employees refused to serve the students and patrons hurled insults at them, they sat there silently for hours, occupying all 30 counter stools in shifts. More sit-ins occurred over the following days and weeks. The sit-in at Weingarten’s Supermarket was the first in a series of non-violent demonstrations leading to the peaceful end of segregation in public places. Houston’s lunch counters quietly desegregated on August 25, 1960. Department stores, hotels and restaurants soon followed, and Houston’s Astrodome opened in 1965 as an integrated facility. The sit-ins ended with the signing of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Today, these thirteen unsung heroes are remembered for starting a movement that advanced civil rights and equality in Houston. (2009)

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4100 – 4110 Almeda

MARKER TEXT: From 1896 until the 1960s in the southern United States, Jim Crow Laws effectively banned African Americans from using public facilities and basic

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715 Franklin 

MARKER TEXT: Magnolia Brewery was part of the Houston Ice and Brewing Company, founded in the late 19th century by Hugh Hamilton. Some of the brewery’s popular brands included Magnolia, Southern Select and Richelieu beers. This building, designed by H.C. Cooke and Co. in 1912, was part of a much larger complex of structures along Buffalo Bayou. The building’s details include pronounced cornice, upswept corner corbelled parapet and stained-glass transoms with a magnolia design. The company closed in 1950, but the building remains a link to the area’s industrial history. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark – 2003

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715 Franklin 

MARKER TEXT: Magnolia Brewery was part of the Houston Ice and Brewing Company, founded in the late 19th century by Hugh Hamilton. Some of the brewery’s popular

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Photo: Coomer, Brett, COURTESY OF Bart Truxillo

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2310 Elgin Street

MARKER TEXT: Between 1900 and 1920, a residential building boom fueled the establishment of a commercial district on Dowling Street, the Third Ward’s main artery. The bustling district included restaurants, shops, churches, stores, professional offices, movie theaters and nightclubs. Located at the corner of Elgin and Dowling Streets, the Eldorado Ballroom was designed by architect Lenard Gebart for the prominent philanthropists and business owners Clarence Arnold Dupree and his wife Anna Johnson Dupree. The ballroom opened in 1939 and was named for one of the social clubs to which the black community’s most prominent professionals and business people belonged. The Eldorado Ballroom provided opportunities for members of the black middle and upper classes to demonstrate their wealth and sophistication. The ballroom launched the careers of musicians and band leaders such as Milton Larkin, Illinois Jacquet and Arnett Cobb. In the late 1950s, the Eldorado Ballroom hosted popular entertainment acts from nationally-known black artists in the blues and R&B genres. By the 1960s, migration out of the inner city resulted in the relocation or closure of many businesses in the area. In addition, the declining importance of social clubs, inadequate parking, and competition from other venues cumulatively led to the ballroom’s closure in the 1970s. Following the deaths of the Duprees, oilman Hubert Finkelstein purchased the property in 1984 and 15 years later donated it to Project Row Houses, a community organization. The Eldorado Ballroom is one of the few historic buildings remaining in the Third Ward’s former commercial district.

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2310 Elgin Street

MARKER TEXT: Between 1900 and 1920, a residential building boom fueled the establishment of a commercial district on Dowling Street, the Third Ward’s main artery. The

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Photo: Houston Chronicle

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Milam and Congress

MARKER TEXT: Platted 1836 by surveyors Gail Borden, Jr., and Moses Lapham as “Congress Square.” It was intention of city fathers Augustus C. and John K. Allen to have permanent Capitol of Republic of Texas located here. However, this was never realized and almost immediately it became center of commerce for the flourishing city. Residents, farmers, peddlers and Indians all crowded here daily with wagon loads of goods to trade. Soon merchants were vying for permanent sites for stores. One early observer noted “reason for its popularity was that the municipal government was conducted in Kesler’s Arcade, a saloon only a half block away.” In 1840 Houston’s first municipal market house was built here. Before it was completed, city officials voted to enlarge it and include a city hall also. For 30 years building served dual role– the market overflowing till it reached the streets. Many items, including household and farm goods, were sold here. It was here that Houston Independent Light Guard mobilized after Texas decided to invade Mexico, 1842. Several municipal buildings occupied the site following original market-city hall. However, the seat of city government was eventually moved to a new location and this became a park. 

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Milam and Congress

MARKER TEXT: Platted 1836 by surveyors Gail Borden, Jr., and Moses Lapham as “Congress Square.” It was intention of city fathers Augustus C. and John K. Allen to have

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Photo: Jim Doersam, Houston Chronicle

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Bagby and Rusk

MARKER TEXT: Due to the efforts of businessman Jesse H. Jones, the Democratic National Committee chose Houston as the site of the 1928 Democratic National Convention. Located on this site, the 20,000-seat Sam Houston Hall was completed in 64 days at a cost of $200,000. The convention met from June 26 to 29. Major issues addressed included the enforcement of prohibition and the plight of America’s farmers. One senator remarked that the 1928 delegates constituted the most disorderly orderly crowd he had ever seen. On June 28 New York Governor Alfred E. Smith (1873-1944) was nominated for president on the first ballot. An anti-prohibitionist, Smith was the first Roman Catholic to be nominated for the U. S. Presidency by a major political party. Senate Majority Leader Joseph T. Robinson, a Southerner and supporter of prohibition, received the nomination for vice president on June 29. Smith, who did not attend the convention, later read a formal acceptance speech in Albany, New York. On November 6, Republican candidate Herbert Hoover won the national election by a wide margin. Though Alfred E. Smith had been nominated for the nation’s highest office at the Houston convention, he did not carry Texas in the November general election. 

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Bagby and Rusk

MARKER TEXT: Due to the efforts of businessman Jesse H. Jones, the Democratic National Committee chose Houston as the site of the 1928 Democratic National

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Photo: Houston Chronicle

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58 Spencer (South Houston) 

MARKER TEXT: The first documented flight of a heavier-than-air flying machine in Texas occurred over this site on February 18, 1910, two weeks before the first military airplane flight by Lt. Benjamin Foulois at Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio. The South Houston flight was part of a land development promotion sponsored by the Western Land Corporation and the Houston “Post.” French aviator Louis Paulhan, on a coast-to-coast flying exhibition tour of America, was commissioned to demonstrate his flying skills. The promoters arranged for special excursion trains to transport spectators to the site from downtown Houston. Headlines in the “Post” proclaimed, “This is the first opportunity for Texans to see a real demonstration of man’s ability to fly. Don’t fail to come and see demonstrated the greatest invention of the present era.” A crowd of more than 2,500 people gathered on Friday, February 18th, to witness Paulhan’s first Texas flight in his Farman biplane. Because of high winds and inclement weather, the aviator was not able to perform some of his most spectacular stunts, but the crowd was thrilled with the aerial display. A second flying exhibition on the following day drew almost 6,000 people.

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58 Spencer (South Houston) 

MARKER TEXT: The first documented flight of a heavier-than-air flying machine in Texas occurred over this site on February 18, 1910, two weeks

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Photo: Google Maps

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Memorial Park

MARKER TEXT: Soon after the United States’ entry into World War I in 1917, the U. S. Army established 34 training camps to prepare troops for warfare. Named for Gen. John A. Logan, Mexican War and Civil War veteran and U. S. Senator from Illinois, Camp Logan was established at this site on July 18, 1917. Encompassing 7,600 acres of land, it consisted of a main camp, auxiliary remount depot, rifle range, artillery range, and drill grounds. During construction, members of the 3rd Battalion, 24th Infantry (black troops commanded by white officers) were assigned to the camp as guards and were stationed about a mile to the east. The black soldiers’ August 23, 1917, armed revolt in response to Houston’s Jim Crow laws and police harassment resulted in the camp’s most publicized incident, the “Houston Mutiny and Riot of 1917.” Troops receiving training at Camp Logan included the 33rd Division, composed of the Illinois National Guard, part of the 93rd Division, and other Regular Army units. Following training, they went on to serve in battle in France in 1918. Camp Logan closed on March 20, 1919. Part of the land later became Memorial Park, named in tribute to the soldiers who fought in Europe.

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Memorial Park

MARKER TEXT: Soon after the United States’ entry into World War I in 1917, the U. S. Army established 34 training camps to prepare troops for warfare. Named for Gen. John A. Logan,

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Photo: Cindy George | Houston Chronicle

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2024 Seawall

MARKER TEXT: Built at a cost of $1,000,000, this hotel was financed by local businessmen and public subscribers to help the economy of Galveston following the 1900 hurricane. Completed in 1911, it was designed by the St. Louis firm of Mauran and Russell. The Spanish Colonial revival styling included a red tile roof and white stuccoed brick walls. The hotel and city are named in honor of Count Bernado de Galvez (1746-86), Spanish Governor of Louisiana and Viceroy of Mexico. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark – 1980

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2024 Seawall

MARKER TEXT: Built at a cost of $1,000,000, this hotel was financed by local businessmen and public subscribers to help the economy of Galveston following the 1900 hurricane.

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Photo: Galveston CVB

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2009-2011 Washington Ave 

MARKER TEXT: Original site of the Houston Coca-Cola Bottling Company The Houston Coca-Cola Bottling Company, one of the first companies in the nation granted franchise rights for the distribution of Coca-Cola in bottles, opened its doors in a brick building on this site in 1902. J.T. Lupton of Chattanooga, Tennessee, was the primary owner. The initial purchase of syrup from the Coca-Cola Company consisted of 387 gallons of syrup, and bottled Coca-Cola was delivered by a mule-drawn wagon. In 1908, the company bought almost 3,000 gallons of syrup to meet the soda demand, which was growing along with Houston’s population. In this location, they had one hand-operated bottling machine with a capacity of 250 cases a day. By 1915, sales of Coca-Cola had increased such that the company moved to larger facilities at 1212 Washington Avenue. In 1918, J.E. Evans became the plant’s general manager, and during his tenure Houstonians continued to celebrate the soft drink sensation, prompting the company’s continued growth. By 1948, C. Lupton Thomas, general manager, and J.E. Evans, president, developed plans for a new facility at 2800 Bissonnet. Lauded as the world’s most modern Coca-Cola plant, the new million-dollar plant opened to the public in June 1950. For more than a century, the Houston Coca-Cola Bottling Company has provided jobs, as well as refreshment, to the City of Houston and surrounding areas. The company has consistently given back to the city through charity work and project funding. As one of the largest operations of its kind in the world, it continues its commitment to employees, customers and neighbors. (2003) 

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2009-2011 Washington Ave 

MARKER TEXT: Original site of the Houston Coca-Cola Bottling Company The Houston Coca-Cola Bottling Company, one of the

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Photo: Google Maps

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Check out the slideshow above for some of the most interesting historical markers in Houston…

Recently the Astrodome was honored with its own Texas Historical Marker, over 50 years after it was built. The marker debuted during a special event on May 29 on the stadium’s southwest side.

NEW THINGS TO SEE: The Astrodome gets its own Texas State Historical Marker

The city is covered in these markers, some hidden in plain sight but no less interesting or worth visiting. Some of the markers are in busy area where  people likely drive or walk by them daily, offering up morsels of local history.

Not all markers are boring either, no matter what kids might say.

As of Jan. 2016 there were over 16,200 markers across the the state of Texas, with about 250 added each year, according to the Texas Historical Commission website. These markers offer visitors a history lesson in obscure and not-so-obscure moments in Texas history.

HOUSTONCHRONICLE.COM: The history of Texas’ most Texas-iest things

To have a marker there should be some historical significance to document and impart to generations of Texans to come. There is a $100 application fee to have a marker considered. In the case of the Dome’s plaque, the Houston Astros picked up the $2,000 tab for the shiny, new marker on site.

The annual application season kicks off later this year. The process calls for the inclusion of a detailed, narrative history documenting why the property or topic deserves a marker. Basically, a research paper is needed.

The first historical marker authorized by the Texas Historical Commission to commemorate Juneteenth, the issuance of the proclamation June 19, 1865, ending slavery in Texas was dedicated in 2014 on The Strand in Galveston.  / handout

Photo: handout

The first historical marker authorized by the Texas Historical Commission to commemorate Juneteenth, the issuance of the proclamation June 19, 1865, ending slavery in Texas was dedicated in 2014 on The Strand in Galveston. 

There are several kinds of markers, including Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks, Historic Texas Cemetery markers, subject markers, and centennial markers added in 1936 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Texas’ independence from Mexico.

A NIGHT WITH HISTORY: Spending a night aboard the Battleship Texas, the last of her kind

The most popular ones are the black and silver subject markers, like the Astrodome now has. These are the ones that are commonly seen on Texas road sides, with detailed information. It could be a person who resided nearby, a building, a settlement, a business, or an important historical location.

These markers don’t particularly safeguard a site or offer it protection. A site must be deemed a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark for that to happen.

Craig Hlavaty is a reporter for Chron.com and HoustonChronicle.com.

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